Faculty

Ori Adam

Ori Adam

Senior Lecturer
Head of the academic committee of the Hebrew University Climate Science Center (HUCS)
Academic head of the Hebrew University Research Computing Service
972-2-6586514
ori.adam@mail.huji.ac.il
Room 307 North

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In my group we study the large-scale dynamics of the atmosphere and oceans and the interactions between them, with emphasis on tropical climate dynamics. We aim to improve our understanding of variations in the present and past climates, and the governing dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms that drive them. We also strive to mediate between theoretical and applied geophysical practices, by developing tools and methods for applications such as bias reduction in climate models, interpretation of paleo records, and quantification of variations of the tropical rain belt.
 

The theoretical tools we use include idealized models of the atmosphere and oceans which are amenable to mathematical analysis, an idealized general circulation model (FMS), as well as the analysis of comprehensive climate models (e.g., CMIP and PMIP models). We also aim to anchor the research in observations. To handle the large variety of observational and modeling datasets, we use a software tool called GOAT (Geophysical Observation Analysis Tool).

Current research projects include:

  • Idealised coupled cloud-ocean-atmosphere models
  • The effect of continent distribution on tropical climate
  • The relation of the atmospheric energy budget and tropical precipitation
  • Origin and nature of the double ITCZ bias
  • Variations of the tropical rain belt in the present and past climates
  • Relating the Hadley cell strength to the atmospheric energy budget
 
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Hagit Affek

Hagit Affek

Associate Professor
972-2-6584654
Hagit.Affek@mail.huji.ac.il
Room 201 North

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My research focuses on global climate change and the use of isotope geochemistry to understand climatic and atmospheric processes. I am interested in the parameters and mechanisms that control paleotemperature proxies; in particuler, my group develops and uses the novel proxy carbonate clumped isotopes. We examine biological parameters that affect clumped isotopes and develop its use in new archive materials; we study the effect of non equilibrium processes on clumped isotopes and oxygen isotopes. We apply clumped isotpes to reconstruct paleotemperature and paleo-rainfall in different time periods during the Cenzoic. I am also interested in the use of isotopes to understand the modern carbon cycle and the effect of the biosphere of atmospheric chemistry.

 

What is clumped isotopes geochemistry?

Analysis of an isotopic composition is a measurement of the relative abundance of a heavy, rare, isotope within a group of molecules. The term ‘clumped isotopes’ refers to the natural abundance of molecules containing two heavy isotopes, such as 13C18O16O, and is a measure of the preference of two heavy isotopes to clump together into a chemical bond. This preference is temperature dependent with the isotopes distributed randomly among all molecules at very high temperatures and are clustered together into a more ordered system at low temperatures.

This results in an isotopic parameter, ∆47, that can record the temperature in which these bonds were formed. ‘Clumped isotopes’ measurements are currently applied for 13C-18O bonds in CO2 molecules that are extracted either from carbonate minerals or from the atmosphere. In carbonates ‘clumped isotopes’ are used to determine the formation temperature of the mineral with most applications associated with reconstruction of past climatic conditions. In atmospheric CO2 it is used as a tracer for partitioning and quantifying the different CO2 sources and sinks of the global carbon cycle.

 

Curriculum Vitae

 

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Amotz  Agnon

Amotz Agnon

Professor
972-2-65-84743
amotz@mail.huji.ac.il
Room 216 South

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Interests:

Earthquake geology and mechanics, mid-ocean ridge and ophiolite dynamics, geo-archaeology, sea-level change and glaciation.

 

Neev center for Geoinformatics

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Alon  Amrani

Alon Amrani

Associate Professor
Head of the Environmental Science Department
972-2-65-85477
alon.amrani@mail.huji.ac.il
Room 204 North

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Interests: 

Organic geochemistry and biogeochemistry, stable isotopes, sulfur cycle, organic-inorganic interactions

 

 

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Alon Angert

Alon Angert

Professor
972-2-65-84758
alon.angert@mail.huji.ac.il
Room 217 South

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Climate Change affects the terrestrial biosphere, while changes in the biosphere feedback and affect the climate system. Understanding these complex interactions is important at these times of Global Change.

Related research in our lab track the respiration in soils, and the internal CO2 movement and recycling within forest trees. In addition, we explore the engagement of the Alternative Oxidase in natural ecosystems. These research directions are based on high accuracy measurements of O2 concentrations and stable isotopes.

Other research projects focus on developing the use of oxygen stable isotopes of phosphate for tracking phosphorus in dust and its biogeochemical cycling in soil. This research is based on field work, remote-sensing and lab work. These approaches could help evaluate the effects of changing climate on the terrestrial phosphorus cycle, which is an important limiting factor for plant growth.

Finally, lately we have developed in collaboration with Prof. Amrani, from my institute, an approach to measure the sulfur isotopes of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and used this to determine its isotopic composition in the atmosphere in plant uptake, and in seawater. Our continued research in this field will help to better constrain global scale photosynthesis

 

Curriculum Vitae

angert lab

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Terrestrial Biogeochemestry- Angert's lab Group

 
 

Tal Weiner - Lab Manager

Research Interests: The study of soil phosphate and its sources using stable isotopes analysis

 
chen davidson  

Chen Davidson - Phd student

Research interests: Studying sulfur isotopes of Carbonyl Sulfide in the atmosphere and in seawater, to better constrain the terrestrial global photosynthesis

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aline Naor  

 Alie Naor - Msc student:

Research interest: The effect of cellular PO4 uptake on the isotopic signature of extracellular phosphate in macrophytes and aquatic fungi. 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

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Yasmin Avidani - Msc student:

Research interest: Studying the oceanic source of COS and CS2 by sulfur stable isotopes, in aim to improve quantifications of global photosynthesis.

 

Former Members

Laura

 

Laura Bigio - Former Phd student

Research Interests: Atmospheric phosphate sources (dust, ash and pollen) and their contribution to the global phosphorus cycle.

 

boaz

 

Boaz Hilman - Former Phd student

Currently: Post Doctoral researcher at Max Planck Institute for biogeochemestry 

http://www.bgc-jena.mpg.de/bgp/index.php/Site/Hom

 

H Lis

 

Hagar Lis - Former Post- Doctoral Researcher 

Currently: Associate researcher at the Plant science department at the Hebrew University.

 

avner

 

Avner Gross - Former Phd student
Currently: Assistant Prof. at the Ben Gurion University of the Negev 

http://in.bgu.ac.il/humsos/geog/pages/staff/avnergross.aspx

 

 

Sasha Pekarsky - Former Msc student

Research Interest: Crane Migration study with oxygen stable isotopesCurrently: http://huji.move-ecol.com/users/sasha-pekarsky

 

 

Esther Peled            

Esther Peled - Former MSc Student 

Currently: Head of Sustainability and Environment - Sustainability and  CSR Group at BDO Israel

 il.linkedin.com/in/esther-peled

 
שרית  

 

Sarit Shaltiel - Former MSc Student 

 

 

dust sampling
 

 

 

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Dov Avigad

Dov Avigad

Professor
972-2-65-86468
dov.avigad@mail.huji.ac.il
Room 204 North

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Together with my students, postdoctoral scholars, and affiliated researchers, I combine field and laboratory studies to understand the origin of Earth's continental crust, its composition and architecture. Within this broad research avenue I concentrate on aspects of continental tectonics with emphasis on Precambrian crustal evolution, old and young orogenic belts, continental extensional tectonics, and the link between orogeny, erosion and sedimentation. We seek to unravel plate tectonics processes around the Eastern Mediterranean with special emphasis on the Cadomian and Avalonian continental collage of SE Europe and Asia Minor, Precambrian crustal evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield in Eilat and Ethiopia, the provenance of the great Paleozoic sand sea of northern Africa and Arabia, and its linkage to Pan-African orogens and to coeval silisiclastic sediments in Europe.

Our research is funded by the Israel Science Foundation, the Israel Ministry of Infrastructure, the German-Israel Binational Science Foundation and the USA-Israel Binational Science Foundation. We currently collaborate with scientists from Israel, USA, Australia, Germany, Turkey, France and Ethiopia

 

Curriculum Vitae

 

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Simon

Simon Emmanuel

Professor
972-2-65-86875
swemmanuel@gmail.com
Room 306 South

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Our group studies nano-scale geological processes central to hydrology and the oil and gas industry. We use a diverse array of methods, combining cutting edge lab technology, state-of-the-art modeling, and field work. Current research projects include:

  • Measuring mineral reaction rates during geological carbon sequestration
  • Imaging crystal growth in nano-pores
  • Analysing mechanical properties of rocks at the nano-scale

I am currently looking for creative students with backgrounds in Earth Sciences, Chemistry, and Physics to join our team. Students in the group are part of a dynamic research program that is developing exciting new projects at the interface between hydrology, geology, and geochemistry. For further information concerning MSc, PhD and postdoctoral opportunities, contact Dr Simon Emmanuel (swemmanuel@gmail.com).

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yigal

Yigal Erel

Kozenitsky-Rosenbach Professor of Geology
972-2-65-86515
yigal.erel@mail.huji.ac.il
Room 007 North

 

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My research involves the application of trace-element ratios and Sr, Nd, Pb, Mo and Fe isotopic compositions to follow the fate of metals in the environment, in archaeological artifacts and in humans. The clean lab and our sensitive analytical instruments enable me and my students to study small-samples and/or materials with low elemental concentrations (e.g., dust samples, teeth and brain). Currently, my group is involved in research projects centering around:

1.     Records of aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine sediments as tracers of paleo-environment conditions and sediment sources.

2.     Tracing metal artifacts in antiquity.

3.     The dark side of ancient metallurgy: Measuring toxic metals and metallic isotopes (and aDNA) in human populations and in artifacts to trace the impact of early industries through time.

4. The association between elemental anomalies in the human brain and mental diseases.

We carry out these projects in collaboration with researchers from the Hebrew University (Earth Science, Archaeology, Medicine), the Geological Survey of Israel, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, The Israel Antiquities Authority, Tel Aviv University, Haifa University, GFZ - Potsdam, Germany, Columbia University, University of California San Diego, University of Michigan, and the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. 


 

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Chaim Garfinkel

Chaim I. Garfinkel

Associate Professor
Head of the Graduate program in Atmospheric Sciences
972-2-658-4944
chaim.garfinkel@mail.huji.ac.il
Room 316 North

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Research Interests: 

Large-scale atmospheric and climate dynamics/variability 


Atmospheric dynamicists try to understand why the atmosphere moves in the way it does. Because of the inherently chaotic nature of the atmosphere, and because the atmosphere is strongly linked to the oceans, land-surface, biosphere, the types of interactions that occur are very complex. However, a wide range of tools, ranging from observational data to simplified models, can help atmospheric dynamicists understand (and even predict) atmospheric motions.
 
 

More specifically, my research aims at extending the duration of reliable weather forecasts, and to then explore how the dynamical processes that are important on these short timescales may manifest on longer, climate-change timescales. The traditional approach to weather forecasting on one- to two-week timescales utilizes weather forecasting models, but on timescales longer than two weeks, the value of deterministic (or ensemble-based probabilistic) forecasts weakens. This is due to the presence of chaotic variability in the atmosphere. Yet certain modes of variability in the climate system have timescales longer than this two-week threshold, and the key to longer-scale prediction is to take advantage of these modes. By understanding the impacts of these modes of variability on surface weather, the potential for improved forecasts on a monthly timescale can be demonstrated and eventually realized. As many of these processes may be modified under climate change (or alternately, climate change may project onto these climate modes), a better understanding of these modes can also help improve the quality of climate change projections.

Two such classes of modes of variability are stratospheric variability (both in the tropical and polar stratosphere) and tropical tropospheric variability (e.g. the Madden-Julian Oscillation and El Nino), and most of my ongoing research focuses on these phenomena. For example, both polar stratospheric sudden warmings and the Madden-Julian Oscillation have been shown to influence European and Mediterannean weather, but it is unclear (1) what mechanism(s) underlie these connections, (2) how far in advance the  impacts can be predicted, and (3) what governs the magnitude of the surface impact.  As these processes must be represented by climate and weather models in order to actualize the potential improvement in predictability, and because the observational record of key meteorological quantities is relatively short, I also run models (both idealized and comprehensive) in order to test model fidelity and to isolate key processes. The ultimate goal is to improve the predictions and projections of surface weather and climate.

Opportunities: Exciting, funded opportunities for further research exist in these areas for master's students, PhD students, and postdocs. For more information, please contact me.

Curriculum Vitae

 

 

Mailing address:
 The Fredy & Nadine Herrmann Institute of Earth Sciences
 The Hebrew University Edmond J. Safra Campus,
 Givat Ram Jerusalem, 91904 Israel

 

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Hezi  Gildor

Hezi Gildor

Professor
972-2-6584393
hezi.gildor@mail.huji.ac.il
Room 312 North

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Interests: 

physical oceanography (ocean mixing and stirring, internal waves, density currents...), modern and paleo climate dynamics, interaction between biota and climate.

 

Curriculum Vitae

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Yoni Goldsmith

Yonatan Goldsmith

Senior Lecturer
yonig@mail.huji.ac.il
Room 14 South

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Research Interests 

Understanding how global warming will effect water availability is one of the crucial questions of our time.

My research is aimed at quantifying past changes in rainfall and evaporation in different places around the world (China, Mongolia, western US, Middle East) in order to understand the natural variability of rainfall and evaporation and the processes that govern this variability.

I combine geomorphology with isotope geochemistry (compound specific stable isotopes (dD, d13C), traditional stable isotopes (dD, 18O, d13C), clumped isotopes and U/Th dating) to investigate how the status of lakes has changed through time. I use hydrological models and outputs of climate models to quantify and evaluate the empirical data I collect.

I’m also interested in how human societies respond to climate change throughout history and in the present.

Ongoing projects:

  • Quantifying the migration of the East Asian Monsoon during the Late Quaternary in China and Mongolia
  • Reconstructing paleo-intensity of the Indian Monsoon using lake-area fluctuations from Lake Chenghai, Southern China
  • Developing and applying compound specific stable isotope biogeochemistry to problems in terrestrial hydroclimate, East Asia, West Asia, Western USA
  • Chemical and isotopic processes of shoreline tufa formation in Mono Lake, USA.

Curriculum Vitae

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Carynelisa Haspel

Carynelisa Haspel

Associate Professor
Head of the Undergraduate Specialization in Climate, Atmospheric Sciences, and Oceanography (CAO)
+972-2-658-4974; +972-54-2122328
carynelisa.haspel@mail.huji.ac.il
Room 302 North

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Research

Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation by Irregular Particles in the Atmosphere and Ocean

I work with models that describe the interaction of solar radiation with particles in Earth's atmosphere and oceans. I am particularly interested in how best (both accurately and efficiently) to model the effects of irregular particles, such as non-spherical particles, porous particles, and particles comprised of disorded/amorphous materials. Similarly, I am interested in how best to model mixtures of different components in the same particle. What are the differing effects of insoluble vs. soluble, solid vs. liquid, and absorbing vs. nonabsorbing components?

 

Underwater Polarization

While human beings only detect the intensity and wavelength of light, some species, both terrestrial and marine, are able to sense light's third attribute, polarization. Such species use polarization (the direction of the electric field) for different tasks such as orientation, navigation, prey detection, and communication. Under water, where the intensity signal is distorted by refraction and weakened by absorption, the ability to utilize polarization can be even more important than on land. For many years, theoretical models of polarized light under water were based on the theory of single scattering of the direct solar beam by small particles (Rayleigh scattering). Models accounting for scattering by larger particles (Mie scattering) have been approximate, and the most sophisticated models to date do not separate the effects of Mie scattering from effects of non-sphericity and multiple scattering. Furthermore, recent measurements under water reveal deviations from the polarization patterns predicted by models, in clear as well as semi-turbid waters. We are using a step-by-step approach to analyze the separate effects of particle size, particle size distribution, particle composition, particle shape, and varying orders of scattering on the underwater polarization pattern, with the goal of identifying the processes at play in different water types.

 

Light Pollution and the Light Environment Within Caves

My group has collaborated with scientists from Bar Ilan University and Beit Berl College in conducting the first in situ measurements ever of artificial nighttime light under water in a coral reef ecosystem. We found that the artificial light can penetrate to a depth of 30 m under the water, which could influence such biological processes as the tuning of circadian clocks, the synchronization of coral spawning, recruitment and competition, vertical migration of demersal plankton, feeding patterns, and prey/predator visual interactions. Similarly, we have collaborated in conducting the first in situ measurements ever of the state of light polarization within a mid-littoral cave. We found a relatively high degree of linear polarization of the light and a nearly constant orientation of the electric field of the light in winter months, which would improve the ability of the photosynthetic organisms there (cyanobacteria, microalgae, and macroalgae) to harvest light by orienting their light-harvesting receptors to the direction of the electric field.

 

Atmospheric Electricity

At Hebrew University, we have an ongoing collaboration with Tel Aviv University, The Open University, and the IDC Herzliya to study transient luminous events (TLEs), such as sprites, blue starters, jets, and elves, which occur above thunderstorm clouds. We have conducted our own observations of sprites and have constructed simple theoretical models to help explain some observed phenomena, such as the circular configuration of simultaneous sprites and the shift in the location of sprites from their parent lightning event.

 

Radiative Forcing of Climate

We look at how the presence of various types of particles affects the Earth's radiative-convective balance. Which particles cause a warming and which cause a cooling, and how does this change with their horizontal distribution? What is the most accurate way of representing subgrid scale features, such as inhomogeneous aerosol and cloud layers, in global models?

 

Curriculum Vitae

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Assaf Hochman

Senior Lecturer
assaf.hochman@mail.huji.ac.il
309 North

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Lab name: Predictability of Extreme Weather (PredEx).

Interests:  Dynamics and predictability of extreme weather; Climate change; Paleoclimate modelling; Large-Scale circulation; Exoplanet climate dynamics; Public health adaptation to climate change

Research Interests 

The predictability of weather and climate is the estimation of uncertainty in model predictions. Atmospheric predictability is strongly dependent on the accuracy of initial conditions, on the representation of sub grid-scale processes and on climate change scenarios. The main purpose of my research is in reducing extreme climate and weather prediction uncertainties across spatial and temporal scales, especially over vulnerable populated regions. My work addresses the issue of weather and climate predictability from different perspectives including physical observations, computer modelling and mathematical/statistical theory.

 

Ongoing and future projects

  • Sub-seasonal Predictability of Hydrological Extremes in the Eastern Mediterranean (SPredHex).
  • Towards Implementing Dynamical Systems Tools for Extreme Weather Prediction over the Middle East and Israel (EMedPredEx).
  • Understanding Dynamics and Predictability of Extreme Mediterranean Cyclones (PredCEx).
  • Understanding Extreme Climate Characteristics in the Levant from a Regional Modelling Perspective (PredExClim).
  • Developing a dynamical systems framework for the broad range of terrestrial exoplanet climates (ExoClimDyn).
  • The Influence of Extreme Weather on Public Health in the Eastern Mediterranean (ExHealth).

Opportunities: Exciting, funded opportunities in these areas for M.Sc and PhD students as well as postdoctoral research associates.

For more information, please contact me: assaf.hochman@mail.huji.ac.il

 

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Ronit  Kessel

Ronit Kessel

Associate Professor
Head of the Geology Program
+972-2-65-85584
ronit.kessel@mail.huji.ac.il
Room 210 South

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The combination of experimental petrology and thermodynamic modeling provides powerful insights into the igneous and metamorphic processes by which Earth and other planets evolved.  My research involves the development of experimental techniques together with modeling of the experimental data to constrain the nature of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments through the study of synthetic analogs. 

The topics I am currently involved with:

Melt and fluid compositions in equilibrium with mantle material. Aqueous fluids play an important role in melting and metasomatism of the Earth’s mantle; I study the role of volatiles (H2O, CO2, etc.) in dehydration/hydration and melting processes in the mantle.

The evolution of meteorite groups. Samples delivered to the Earth as meteorites provide us with a unique opportunity to study the timing and the processes by which our solar system formed and evolved.  I combine both experimental and analytical methods to understand the formation conditions of different groups of meteorites.

 

Curriculum Vitae

 

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Nadav Lensky

Associate Professor (Adjunct)
+972-50-6235197  
 nadavl@gsi.gov.il
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Interests:  Geology, Limnogeology of the Dead Sea, from evaporation to evaporites, air-water interactions, fluvial and coastal geomorphology
 
My research focuses on basic questions regarding the controlling processes of large scale Earth environments, and the relations between climatic/environmental conditions and the formation of geological records in un-balanced systems. I try to stick to the useful approach - “the present as a key to the past”. The Dead Sea, a deep hypersaline lake subjected to negative water balance that precipitates salt layers, is a unique aquatic system on Earth today, which provides a rare opportunity to explore the formation of “salt giants”, i.e. ~kilometer thick salt layers in wide sedimentary basins that were common aquatic environments in the past. In addition, the Dead Sea vicinity is a multi-setting natural laboratory for rare exploration of geomorphic responses to base level fall. With my students, we tend to start our explorations with direct observations, using buoys in the Dead Sea measuring air-water exchange (eddy-covariance towers), the properties within the water column, the formation of salt deposits and their variation in time and space, and we perform seasonal surveys of the lake floor using Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). The observations are then arranged in theoretical schemes including conservation and transport equations to allow generalization of our findings.
​Ongoing and future projects:
  • “From evaporation to evaporites” – the relation of environmental/climatic forcing, through the thermos-haline stratification of the water column and transport processes between the strata, to the formation of salt layers, including temporal variations (diurnal and seasonal cycles, and synoptic events) and spatial variations along climatic gradients and depth variations within the lake.
  • Stratigraphy and sedimentology of salt and detritic layers during lake regression – high resolution observations relating hydroclimatic conditions to rock textures and composition.
  • Surface processes in response to lake level lowering – stream incision and the transport of sediments by fluvial and coastal conveyers.  
  • We now expand our activity to the next water bodies along the Dead Sea rift (Hula, Kinneret, Dead Sea and Gulf of Eilat), where we explore the gas, heat and momentum exchange across the water surfaces, and their impact on the water body and the deposits. These water bodies are arranged within a tectonic rift, and along an extreme climatic gradient, with various aquatic biology.
 
Get in touch: nadavl@gsi.gov.il
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